Friday, February 7, 2020

Accounting for Income Tax Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Accounting for Income Tax - Essay Example In the same way, the recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets in combination of an entity has implications on the extent of goodwill that is realised in the recognised bargain purchase gain or in such an entity combination. Other areas that are dealt with by this standard include the recognition of differed tax assets that are generated from unused tax credits or unused tax losses, and the disclosure of income taxes information and the presentation of income taxes in the financial statements (EFRAG, 2011). According to IAS 12, the way, a liability is settled or the way an asset is recovered can have implications on either the item’s tax base or the relevant tax rate, or both. For example, if a vehicle is sold, indexation can be applied on it, in addition to tax deductions against the proceeds of its original cost. In other words, the tax base of the vehicle would act as the vehicle’s indexed cost. On the other hand, if the vehicle is used to run business with the purpose of making taxable profits, corporation tax allowances are not provided, and in that note, its tax base would be zero. It is, however, essential to know that the tax rates applied on use of an item or on sales differ from one jurisdiction to the other (EFRAG, 2011). Difficulties of applying and understanding IAS12 and provide examples. The standards are perceived by the users of financial statements as complex, incomplete and non-standardised. In particular, the information regarding the deferred tax is considered, by users, to be to be insufficient to an extent that it is difficult to forecast the future tax cash flows, accurately. Incidentally, it would have been much helpful if the users are able to understand the strategy applied by an entity, which should be coupled with clear clarifications on the treatment of tax expenses because users do not have the technical accounting knowledge to understand accounting irregularities and complex tax issues that characterise the financial statements. These limitations originate from lack of reflection of the economics of transactions by the accounting method, and from the current standard’s exceptions to the principles - IAS 12 requirements to recognise deferred tax on assets estimated at fair value, and long leasehold investment assets does not reveal the economic implications of recovering the property (EFRAG, 2011). In some jurisdictions, the seller is prohibited from deducting the cost of the property against the income following its use. In such a situation, the fair value of the property will show the present value of future cash flows minus the payments of future tax. Although the current provisions by IAS12 may not reveal the economic impacts of getting back the carrying amount in such situations, when the property is valued at fair value, the deferred tax liability reproduces a tax impact that is perhaps already featured in

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Economics question and answer Essay Example for Free

Economics question and answer Essay Economics: question and answer Introduction Question 1            War unrest in Middle East has negatively impacted on the price and quantity of oil in the market. The expectation of war from Syria and Iraq to spread to Middle East countries cause fear of possible shortages of supply as people may possibly do without oil. As a result people will buy more to store in preparation for future shortages. As the demand increases, price of oil goes up as people anticipate war unrest in the near future. When eventually the war sets in oil production is disrupted but people do not demand more since they had enough to cushion the scarcity (Kemp, 2013). In the graph illustration below, assuming the market was initially at the equilibrium. Since scarcity is expected in future people will by more (high demand) to spare for future. As the demand increase from 150 units to 350 units, the price also increases accordingly from $0.25 to $ 0.35. Graphical illustration 3411220146431000 Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: when people expect civil unrest the demand is high but and the prices go up. Question 2            Car and petro are complimentary good that are consumed together. Taxation on one of the complimentary products greatly influences the price of the other good. The increase in price of one good causes a corresponding decrease in the price of the other good and vice versa. For instance, taxing petrol increase its price, leading to high demand for high fuel efficient cars. Increase in demand for high fuel efficient cars results to increased price and vice versa. On the other hand increase in price for petrol leads to decrease in demand for low fuel efficient cars thus leading to their low price (Dwivedi, 2012). Many thus will buy high fuel efficient cars Graphical illustration Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: price of petrol increases when tax is imposed Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 this graph shows increase in demand and price for high fuel efficient when the price for petrol increases due to taxation Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: the graph show decrease in demand for high fuel efficient cars when the price of petrol goes up Question 3            The fact that suppliers cannot sell live chicken directly to consumers coupled with the fear of mass death due to anticipated chicken flu results to high supply in the market. When supply increases beyond demand the price falls down. In addition since the health official are the only buyers a monopolistic competition comes into play since the price for chicken is not control by the market forces of demand and supply (Taylor, Weerapana, 2012). The equilibrium the will shift to the right. Graphical illustration lefttop Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 : Excess supplies of chicken in the market results to low demand and eventually falls in price. The farmer expects future unfavorable condition due to outbreak of chicken flue. Question 4 Price elasticity of demand is the measure of responsive of the quantity demanded of a product to price change with other factors held ( Dwivedi, 2012). Price Elasticity of Demand (PEoD) = percentage change in quantity demanded (%ΔQ) à · percentage change in price (%ΔP) %ΔQ = 35 -50 / 50 Ãâ€"100 = -30% %ΔP = 8 -6 / 6 Ãâ€"100 = 33.33% Therefore, PEoD = -30 %/ 33.33% = -0.900            As economists we are not interested with the negative sign of our price elasticity of demand and therefore we take the absolute value. Therefore, the price elasticity of demand when price increases from $6 to $ 8 is 0.9. Interpretation.            For the above case the demand for the good is price inelastic. This means that the demand for the product does not respond highly ton price changes. As evident in the computation, an increase of price by 33.3 % of the price results to a corresponding decrease of quantity demanded by 30%. The demand thus is not very sensitive to price changes. Question 5(a)            Externality is an effect or a cost of the consumer behavior that may not be borne by the consumer but by the society. This mean s that the effects are caused by the consumer but the society bears the consequences. Tobacco smoking is among the activities that cause externalities. For instance narcotic in tobacco is believed to cause lung cancer to smokers. However the external cost of providing medical care to smokers is borne by non-smokers, by smokers and the government. Additionally environmental pollution due to smoking is borne by the family members of the smoker’s friends and even non-smokers strangers. Moreover, smoking has environmental externalities that involve deforestation to create room for tobacco growing. Agrochemical used in tobacco production also adds to environmental pollution and degradation. Cigarette wastes are common in all cities, sidewalks and around homes. Although majority of these wastes are biodegradable, the filter and plastic wr appers and remain in the environment for long and the consequences of such pollution are felt by the larger society. 5(b)            The Australian government in its attempt to control and minimize the external costs resulting from tobacco imposes high tax on tobacco. High taxation on tobacco increases the cost and as a result the demand for tobacco decreases. The tax imposed is transferred by producers to the consumers (smokers). When this happens, the demand curve will shift from right to left as indicated in the graph. Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: (Tax increase the price for tobacco leading to low demand and eventually low consumption) Question 6            When entry barriers are eliminated in the market huge number of firms enters the industry resulting to excessive supply of commodities. In a market where entry barriers are limited the price of commodities is determined by the market forces since no firm has control over the market. Excessive supply that is created results to low prices of goods and services offered. In response the price the price goes down due to competition from other firm. As a result, the profit that firms were making initially decreases due. Graphical illustration 1627833top00 Question 7            Oligopolistic market structures is a type of market where by small number of larger firms control the market jointly. The firms trade in almost similar goods. Oligopolistic firms do not engage in price competetion (Vives, 2001).Basing our argument on the game theory; where the actions one firm depend on those of other firms, it is evident that when for instance one firm lowers its price compared to other firms, customers will be attracted by the lower prices resulting to other firms making economical loss in their operation. In response to this the other will lower their price slighted below the initial firm eventually attracting the customers. The other firms in the market will make loss and eventually respond by making their prices much lower compared to other firms. This process continues until the firms sell at economically a low price that is illustrated by kinked curves (Vives, 2001).There to remain competitive and make profit do not engage in price competiti on. Alternatives to price completion            Oligopolistic firms compete by using alternative modes such as advertisement, product differentiation and barrier to entry in the market. Oligopolistic firms undertake a vigorous advertisement of their products both in national and international levels. Advertisement is made to make potential customers aware of the existence of the product in the market and the good qualities associated with such good and services (Taylor Weerapana, 2012). Advertisement is carried out through mass media and product promotion. In addition oligopolistic firms constantly differentiate their products in terms of quality and always struggle to come up with new products design that outshine those of competitors. In the recent era product differentiation has been enhanced by ever growing technology and innovation. Since oligopolistic firms compete in almost similar goods and services coming up with new products with good qualities gives a firm advantage over its market rivals. For instan ce phones manufacturing firms have constantly developed phone with new applications to remain competitive.            Furthermore, the firms create market entry barriers to new firms, a strategy that ensures that the existing share of market. The common market barriers include the patent rights, important government franchises and the existing economies of scale. These barriers ensure that the market is not flooded by many firms that in the long run may reduce the existing firms’ share of the market control. References Dwivedi, D. N. (2012). Microeconomics. New Delhi, India: Pearson Education/Dorling Kindersley. Kemp, G. (2013). War with Iran: Political, military, and economic consequences. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield Publishers Taylor, J. B., Weerapana, A. (2012). Principles of microeconomics. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning Vives, X. (2001). Oligopoly pricing: Old ideas and new tools. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press Source document

Monday, January 20, 2020

The New, Old Entertainment Essay -- Computers Technology Essays

The New, Old Entertainment Imagine a world where no one goes outside for a neighborhood soccer game, computer games are the closest thing to activity and the only social interaction comes in the form of online gaming. Now, think to your self is this actually a far fetched idea? The sad reality is that to thousands of what researchers from the Center for Disease Control call â€Å"tweens†, this is their daily life: go to school, do homework and jump on the computer or various other gaming systems. In modern America children seldom go outside to simply enjoy the pleasures of physical activities. The Center for Disease Control noticed this very problem and brought it to Congress in order to help get funding to prevent obesity which is becoming an epidemic. It is from this that the â€Å"Verb† campaign began in June of 2002. The Verb advertising campaign draws children in by appealing to their senses of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos; moreover, the advertisement successfully demonstrates to their audience that physical are worthwhile Furthermore, since this advertisement campaign was brought about through Congress, it contains valid evidence and support for its arguments. The Center for Disease Control used many tests to see what youth are actually interested in. Knowing these children better than nearly any other researchers allowed them to pull on the heart strings of America’s youth, and encourage a change in activity levels. The audiences within these advertisements are youth somewhere in between the years of nine and thirteen. Yet, they are not the sole targets, so are there mothers encouraging them to motivate their youth. The purpose as written within this article is to encourage youth to â€Å"Just get out there. Anytime. Anywhere†. Another... ...he emotional appeals making the intended audience desire to participate in any sort of activity. The credibility of this ad makes us know that the activities can not harm us. The logic reminds us how important it is to workout and be involved with the sports of any caliber. The pathos makes us feel the desire to participate to be out there and to be one of the thousands who are having fun. So now all everyone must do is to keep in mind that video games are fun but there is a great big world out there and it wouldn’t hurt anything to go and enjoy it. The commercials with children all playing inside should not be a reality, rather it should be the fantasy. Hopefully, the children of tomorrow will once again be seen playing soccer until their Mother’s flash the front porch for them to come in, and the video games of today will be pushed to the backs of their closets.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Effects of Mass Media Essay

What were the major developments in the evolution of mass media during the 20th century? The major developments in the mass media during the 20th century include electronic and digital communication. The first electronic device use for communication was the telegraph, which feature dot-dash signals. Thanks to the telegraph, people did not need to use transportation to deliver a simple message. With the telegraph a message was received in a matter of minutes. The telegraph was the foundation to many other electronic devices like the radio, fax machine, and the cell phone. With the digital era, communication has transformed our way of life. Cable TV and the internet have evolved so quickly that some traditional media have (like the newspaper) have lost their control over information. Other traditional media are also losing ground thanks to the development of emerging media. Media sites like Facebook, YouTube, and Tweeter are attracting more audience than traditional media. Facebook alone has over 1 billion users worldwide and its still growing. With new technology been develop every day, people are more connected than ever before, because of this, business like the post office are losing money every day because people no longer need to write letters, or mail a check to pay for their bills. News can be broadcast almost instantaneously by anyone with a mobile device. Devises like ipads, smart phones, and laptops allowed people to view anything from magazines, news articles, television shows and movies. Read more:Â  Essay on Mass Media Advantages and Disadvantages Most TVs are now been develop with internet and wi-fi connection, so people have a reason to purchase it. The development of mass media will continue to grow and new ways of information will eventually replace the old ones. How did each development influence American culture? The development of mass media has influence American culture in many ways. Before the development of new age technology, American culture way of communication was oral and written. People rely on books, manuscripts, and word of mouth to get information delivered. Even politicians depended on oral and written communication to get the vote of the people. With the development of the telegraph and eventually the radio, in America, people started moving from a farming culture, into a urban life style, where new industries and economic opportunities beckoned. With the development of digital communication, people started taking control over information. Publishers and TV station began losing ground over the control of information as well. With each development, people began to depend on themselves to get the information, rather than relying on teachers, or storytellers. The internet has allowed our culture to do interact in different ways. You can buy anything online, without leaving the house, you can work from home, take college courses and earn your degree, make a video conference, and many other things that could not be done in the past. There are many advantages to the development of mass media in our culture, but it has also disadvantages. I believe that the internet has made people lazier and less responsible. There are people that instead of going to the market to get food, they prefer to order groceries online to get it delivered home. When it comes to education, some students just search for the easy answers available online, instead of taking the time to do the research.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Foundations of Grammar in Italian

For many Italian language speakers—even for those whom Italian is their madrelingua—the phrase parti del discorso might seem foreign. English speakers know the concept as parts of speech, but its probably a term vaguely remembered from grade school grammar. A part of speech (whether Italian or English) is a linguistic category of words generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behavior of the lexical item in question. If that definition intrigues you, then an introduction to Italian linguistics might be a jumping off point. Suffice it to say that linguists have developed a classification system that groups specific types of words according to their roles. For anyone whose primary goal is to speak like an Italian, perhaps its enough to be able to identify each of the parti del discorso to facilitate learning the language. Per tradition, grammarians recognize nine parts of speech in Italian: sostantivo, verbo, aggettivo, articolo, avverbio, preposizione, pronome, congiunzione, and interiezione. Below is a description of each category with examples. Noun / Sostantivo A (sostantivo) indicates persons, animals, things, qualities, or phenomena. Things can also be concepts, ideas, feelings, and actions. A noun can be concrete (automobile, formaggio) or abstract (libertà  , politica, percezione). A noun can also be common (cane, scienza, fiume, amore), proper (Regina, Napoli, Italia, Arno), or collective (famiglia, classe, grappolo). Nouns such as purosangue, copriletto, and bassopiano are called compound nouns and are formed when combining two or more words. In Italian, the gender of a noun can be male or female. Foreign nouns, when used in Italian, usually keep the same gender as the language of origin. Verb / Verbo A verb (verbo) denotes action (portare, leggere), circumstance (decomporsi, scintillare), or state of being (esistere, vivere, stare). Adjective / Aggettivo An adjective (aggettivo) describes, modifies, or qualifies a noun: la casa bianca, il ponte vecchio, la ragazza americana, il bello zio. In Italian, there are several classes of adjectives, including: demonstrative adjectives (aggettivi dimostrativi), possessive adjectives (aggettivi possessivi), (aggettivi indefiniti), numerical adjectives (aggettivi numerali), and degree of comparison adjectives (gradi dellaggettivo). Article / Articolo An article (articolo) is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the gender and number of that noun. A distinction is usually made between definite articles (articoli determinativi), indefinite articles (articoli indeterminativi), and partitive articles (articoli partitivi). Adverb / Avverbio An adverb (avverbio) is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverb types include manner (meravigliosamente, disastrosamente), time (ancora, sempre, ieri), (laggià ¹, fuori, intorno), quantity (molto, niente, parecchio), frequency (raramente, regolarmente), judgment (certamente, neanche, eventualmente), and (perchà ©?, dove?). Preposition / Preposizione A preposition (preposizione) connects nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence. Examples include di, , da, , con, su, per, and tra. Pronoun / Pronome A (pronome) is a word that refers to or substitutes for a noun. There are several types of pronouns, including personal subject pronouns (pronomi personali soggetto), direct object pronouns (pronomi diretti), indirect object pronouns (pronomi indiretti), reflexive pronouns (pronomi riflessivi), possessive pronouns (pronomi possessivi), (pronomi interrogativi), demonstrative pronouns (pronomi dimostrativi), and the particle ne (particella ne). Conjunction / Congiunzione A conjunction (congiunzione) is the part of speech that joins two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together, such as: quando, sebbene, anche se, and nonostante. Italian conjunctions can be separated into two classes: coordinating conjunctions (congiunzioni coordinative) and subordinating conjunctions (congiunzioni subordinative). Interjection / Interiezione An interjection (interiezione) is an exclamation that expresses an improvisational emotional state: ah! eh! ahimà ¨! boh! coraggio! bravo! There are many types of interjections based on their form and function.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Lexicology - Definition and Examples

Lexicology is the branch of linguistics that studies the stock of words (the lexicon) in a given language. Adjective: lexicological. Etymology From the Greek lexico- -logy, word study Lexicology and Syntax Lexicology deals not only with simple words in all their aspects but also with complex and compound words, the meaningful units of language. Since these units must be analyzed in respect of both their form and their meaning, lexicology relies on information derived from morphology, the study of the forms of words and their components, and semantics, the study of their meanings. A third field of particular interest in lexicological studies is etymology, the study of the origins of words. However, lexicology must not be confused with lexicography, the writing or compilation of dictionaries, which is a special technique rather than a level of language studies ...The essential difference between syntax and lexicology is that the former deals with the general facts of language and the latter with special aspects. . . . Syntax is general because it deals with rules and regularities that apply to classes of words as a whole, whereas lexicology is particular because it is concerned with the way individual words operate and affect other words in the same context. Although borderline cases do exist in both lexicology and syntax, e.g., in the case of grammatical or function words, the distinction between the two levels is fairly clear.  (Howard Jackson and Etienne Zà © Amvela, Words, Meaning, and Vocabulary: An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology. Continuum, 2007) Content Words and Function Words [T]eachers of English have customarily distinguished between content words, like snow and mountain, and function words, like it and on and of and the ...  Lexicology is the study of content words or lexical items.  (M.A.K. Halliday et al., Lexicology and Corpus Linguistics. Continuum, 2004) Lexicology and Grammar Both grammar and lexicology involve us in an indefinitely large number of superficially different units. In the case of grammar these are phrases, clauses, and sentences; in the case of lexicology the units are words, or more precisely . . . lexical items. It is typical of grammar to make general and abstract statements about the units concerned, showing a common construction despite formal differences. It is typical of lexicology to make specific statements about individual units. In consequence, while the grammar of a language is best handled in chapters devoted to different types of construction, it is normal to deal with the lexicon of a language in an alphabetical dictionary, each entry devoted to a different lexical item.  (Randolph Quirk et al., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, 2nd ed. Longman, 1985) Lexicology and Phonology [I]t may be thought at first sight that phonology does not interact with lexicology in any significant manner. But a close analysis will reveal that, in many cases, the difference between two otherwise identical lexical items can be reduced to a difference at the level of phonology. Compare for example the pair of words toy and boy, feet and fit, pill and pin. They differ only in one sound unit (the position of which has been [italicized] in each word) and yet the difference has serious consequences at the level of lexicology.  (Etienne Zà © Amvela, Lexicography and Lexicology. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning, ed. by Michaà «l Byram. Routledge, 2000) Pronunciation: lek-se-KAH-le-gee

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Procter and Gamble vs Peta - 588 Words

â€Å"What’s that?† you wonder as you look out your window. A small group of people is gathered on the sidewalk at the end of the wisteria gardens in front of the main headquarters of Procter Gamble. If you squint, you can see they’re holding signs, but the only text you can make out is the word â€Å"PETA† in big letters across the bottom. â€Å"Just great,† you think to yourself. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the animal-rights group more commonly know by the acronym PETA, raises more than $25 million a year from its 1.6 million members and supporters. PETA not only campaigns for animal rights but also funds less known animal-rights groups to engage in activism. PETA is extremely adept at organizing public campaigns and mobilizing†¦show more content†¦Their tactics, denounced as mob rule by some in the medical research community, included hate mail, malicious phone calls, death threats, fireworks, a pedophile smear campaign, car vandalism, arson attacks, and finally the theft of the remains of a relative of the farm owner from the churchyard cemetery. It is clear that PETA will do anything to achieve its goals. Procter Gamble (PG) does not use animals to test the safety of its cosmetics, shampoos, detergents, cleansers, and paper goods; it does, however, use animals to test the safety of new drugs, health-care products, and products intended for use on babies and children. Nonetheless, PG still draws protests from PETA in the form of PETA’s â€Å"Died† advertising campaign, based on PG’s best-selling laundry detergent Tide. The â€Å"Died† ad shows a woman holding a box of â€Å"Died† detergent with the words â€Å"Thousands of Animals Died for Your Laundry† boldly written on the box. PETA is urging consumers to boycott all PG products until the company ends all forms of animal testing. From PG’s perspective, eliminating animal testing altogether could compromise safety, as testing is critical to producing safe products for its customers. PG has to know, for example, that a product will not cause injury if children accidentally swallow it or get it into their eyes. Furthermore, in the event that a productShow MoreRelatedAnimal Testing : Cosmetic Manufacturers1375 Words   |  6 PagesMarla Donato from the Chicago Tribune states, two of the largest manufacturers Avon Products and Revlon recently announced a permanent end to all animal testing by their companies. Mary kay announced a temporary moratorium on practice, and Procter and gamble unveiled a $450,000 grant program to investigate alternative research methods (Donato par.1). If there is so much being done to end animal testing, why do some major companies still insist on using this method? The reason for this is simply